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Bologna Process, European credit transfer and Accumulation System

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries designed to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher education qualifications. Through the Bologna Accords, the process has created the European Higher Education Area, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna, with the signing of the Bologna declaration by Education Ministers from 29 European countries in 1999, in the spirit of integration which was en vogue at the time (and which also resulted in the introduction of the Euro at about the same time).

It was opened up to other countries signatory to the European Cultural convention,[1] of the Councilof Europe; further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), and Leuven (2009).

Before the signing of the Bologna declaration, the Magna Charta Universitatum had been issued at a meeting of university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna – and thus of European universities – in 1988. One year before the Bologna declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jürgen Rüttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer(Italy) and Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration[2] in Paris 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system".

The Bologna Process currently has 47 participating countries.[3] While the European Commission is an important contributor to the Bologna Process, the Lisbon Recognition Convention was prepared by the Councilof Europe and members of the Europe Region of UNESCO.[4]

Bologna Zone

The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goalof providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the socialdimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs.

With the Bologna Process implementation, higher education systems in European countries are to be organized in such a way that:

It is easy to move from one country to the other (within the European Higher Education Area) – for the purpose of further study or employment.

The attractiveness of European higher education has increased, so that many people from non- European countries also come to study and/or work in Europe.

The European Higher Education Area provides Europe with a broad,high-qualityadvanced knowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerant community benefiting from a cutting-edge European Research Area.

There willalso be a greater convergence between the U.S. and Europe as European higher education adopts aspects of the American system.

Current signatories and thus members of the "European Higher Education Area" are:[5]

European Higher Education Area

This makes Monaco and San Marino the only members of the Councilof Europe which did not adopt the Bologna Process (although they might consider joining once France and Italy have implemented it). Allmember states of the EU are participating in the Process. The other country eligible to join the initiative is Belarus.

The following organisations are also part of the follow-up of the Process: ESU, EUA, EURASHE, EI, ENQA, UNICE as well as the Councilof Europe, the European Commission and UNESCO. Other networks at this level include ENIC, NARIC and EURODOC.

Since 2003 the Bologna process membership has swelled to 45 countries, dramatically affecting the conception of the European Higher Education Area. These additional countries comprise Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Holy See, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, and “the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” who all joined the process at the Berlin Ministerial conference in 2003, and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine who in 2005 became the latest countries to be welcomed to the Bologna process.

The Treaty States

  • The normalization of a learning achievements evaluation system – ECTS – so as to facilitate student mobility
  • The promotion of a European Cooperation reflecting upon quality with a view to adjusting evaluation criteria and methods.

Now signed by 45 countries and reinforced by Lisbon Treaty on research, this treaty reaches beyond the European boundaries. The process launched by the Bologna Treaty enables students to travel freely and will ultimately give them the opportunity to attain a bachelor’s degree in their native country and to pursue their master’s degree in a foreign country. If ucation veers in that direction we willbe compelled to rethink all our teaching and training methods so as to adapt them to an increased cultural heterogeneity within master programs.

Along with this evolution come significant changes in the management of institutions.

Spurred by the need to achieve excellence, to face competition, to adapt to new markets, institution management is going to start resembling entrepreneurship and turning to companies in order to entice new resources.

This will give each institution the opportunity to elaborate its own specific marketing strategy. From then on, it willno longer make sense to take nationaleducationalsystems into account: one will have to compare institutions with each other because the latter will instinctively adopt innovative positions in order to make a difference and enhance their brand image.

Establishment of a system of credits - such as in the ECTS system - as a proper means of promoting the most widespread student mobility

Credits could also be acquired in non-higher education contexts, including lifelong learning, provided they are recognised by receiving Universities concerned.

Promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles to the effective exercise of free movement with particular attention to:

For students, access to study and training opportunities and to

  • For teachers, researchers andadministrative staff, recognition
  • And valorisation of periods spent in a European context researching,teaching and training,without prejudicing their statutory rights.
  • Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance with a view to developing comparable criteria and methodologies.
  • Promotion of the necessary European dimensions in higher
  • Education, particularly with regards to curricular development, interinstitutional co-operation,mobility schemes and integrated programmes of study, training and research.

DNMU is ranked first amongst the university in Ukraine to follow the Bologna Process managing in Ukraine. M.Gorky Donetsk National Medical University <<DNMU>> works actively for transfer of students from other European Universities to DNMU and from DNMU to other universities in Europe and America.

Transfer to other European universities is made under the Bologna process and to the universities of Canada and USA on the basis of the agreements of DNMU with the universities.

DNMU has signed for cooperation and for student transfer with almost 160 different countries of the different countries among them are the universities of CIS, Europe, Canada, and USA and with some Arabic countries.

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